What do solar controllers do?

A solar charger gathers energy from your solar panels, and then stores it in your batteries.  The power delivered by the solar panels is unsuitable to connect directly to the battery – so this power has to pass through a solar controller.  There are two main types of controller:

The PWM (Pulse Wave Modulation) controller is in essence a switch that connects a solar array to a battery. The result is that the voltage of the solar array will be pulled down to near that of the battery.

The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) controller is more sophisticated: it will adjust its input voltage to harvest the maximum power from the solar array and then transform this power to supply the varying voltage requirement, of the battery plus load. Thus, it essentially decouples the array and battery voltages so that there can be, for example, a 12 volt battery on one side of the MPPT charge controller and a large number of cells wired in series to produce larger voltages i.e. 36 volts on the other.

MPPT Controllers are more sophisticated, are more recent technology and therefore cost more but are more efficient.  Below are some examples of MPPT controllers and PWM Controllers – click through to the shop category to see more options.

The resultant twin strengths of an MPPT controller

Maximum Power Point Tracking

The MPPT controller will harvest more power from the solar array. The performance advantage is substantial (10% to 40%) when the solar cell temperature is low (below 45°C), or very high (above 75°C), or when irradiance is very low.
At high temperature or low irradiance the output voltage of the array will drop dramatically. More cells must then be connected in series to make sure that the output voltage of the array exceeds battery voltage by a comfortable margin.

Lower cabling cost and/or lower cabling losses

Ohm’s law tells us that losses due to cable resistance are Pc (Watt) = Rc x I², where Rc is the resistance of the cable. What this formula shows is that for a given cable loss, cable cross sectional area can be reduced by a factor of four when doubling the array voltage.

In the case of a given nominal power, more cells in series will increase the output voltage and reduce the output current of the array (P = V x I, thus, if P doesn’t change, then I must decrease when V increases).

As array size increases, cable length will increase. The option to wire more panels in series and thereby decrease the cable cross sectional area with a resultant drop in cost, is a compelling reason to install an MPPT controller as soon as the array power exceeds a few hundred Watts (12 V battery), or several 100s of Watts (24 V or 48 V battery).